A Journal of the African Educational Research and Development Foundation [AERDF]

Journal of Educational Research on Children, Parents & Teachers


Journal articles

Articles in Volume 3 Issue 1

Article 19

Dr. Abubakarr Lamin


The study centered on special educators’ perspectives regarding constraints in delivering
special needs education in Sierra Leone through ascertaining whether teachers in special
schools have the requisite human resource are adequately equipped in terms of teaching
and learning devices, and physical infrastructure. The study employed a quantitative
survey approach. It involved questionnaire administration to teachers and interviews with
school heads. Data analysis involved using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that
special educators are specialized in diverse fields related, and unrelated to special
education. Most of them have spent approximately a decade in the profession and
undergone some form of professional development training in special education.
However, there were deficits in human resource – staffing and qualifications. Special
education tutorials and assistive devices were lacking – especially modern technology
tools. Physical infrastructure including amenities for extra-curricular activities were also
inadequate. It is recommended that capacity gaps of educators be addressed via
recruitment and training of qualified personnel; huge investment made in the acquisition
of modern teaching and learning tools/devices/technologies; and physical infrastructure
be improved to attain the government educational and human rights goals, and the UN
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 

Article 20

Emmanuel A. BABALOLA and Ishola A. SALAMI


Awareness and utilization of learning resources by caregivers and parents play a
significant role in the holistic development of the child, hence efforts to make relevant
stakeholders aware and utilize resources available are considered equally significant.
One of the learning areas where resources are most needed is Mathematics to demystify
its level of difficulties. This study thus investigated Parents’ and caregivers’ awareness as
well as how “ayo-olopon” can be used as an instructional tool to improve pre-school
children’s mathematical computation skills. A descriptive survey research design was
adopted and 140 participants made up of 40 caregivers and 100 parents of 5year old preschoolers in Ibadan, Oyo State were selected using multi-stage sampling procedure. Two
self-design questionnaires were used to collect data for the study namely, Parents
Awareness and Utilization of ayo-olopon with Preschoolers Questionnaires (PAU_AoPQ,
r=0.74) and Caregivers Awareness and Utilization of ayo-olopon as Instructional Aid
Questionnaires (CAU_AoIAQ, r=0.81). The data were analyzed using descriptive
statistics as featured in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings
revealed that caregivers are not aware of, and do not utilize ayo-olopon as an instructional
resource to enhancemathematical computation skills among pre-primary school children.
It was concluded that all educational stakeholders should embrace indigenous games
especially ayo-olopon to teach pre-school children numeracy. It was recommended that
teachers should be trained on the use of locally made instructional materials such as ayoolopon to enhance mathematics computation skills among pre-primary school children.

Article 21

Suleiman, Bashir; Ogundeji, Oluwatomisin Marvellous; & Bello, Abdullahi


Nigerian teachers and students, similar to the Americans, are overburdened in this era of high
stake and stressing standardized testing. They are under pressure to generate high test scores
to the centralized power structure. Teachers are to be accountable to their students through test
scores and they feel more and more threatened and terrified by the standardization of testing and
teaching. To this end, some teachers have adopted teaching-to-the-test teaching strategies to
compensate for this assessment practice (i.e. high-stake testing), while others teach to the
curriculum. We, therefore, through our review shade more light on the concepts “teaching-to-thetest and curriculum teaching” and highlighted factors that promote inappropriate teaching in
Nigeria. The researchers noticed that teaching-to-the-test instructional practices are not
appropriate for our classrooms and quickly push forward the frontier knowledge of curricular
teaching as appropriate classroom instructional practices that could promote in-debt learning of
students. The researchers recommend that teaching according to the curriculum should be
embraced among Nigerian teachers in schools. As well, education stakeholders should help in
reducing the influence of factors that encourage inappropriate teaching practices such as
“teaching-to-the-test” in a bit to promote Curriculum teaching. 

Article 22



The question of man is the ultimate metaphorical question and has been a pressing issue in
the mind of humanity since time immemorial. Quite often, the focus of the question has been
placed on the differences between man and lower animals. But existential peril awaits the
collective future of humanity if man continues in the habit of looking at himself in terms of his
differences from fellow men! This paper looks at the question of man from various
conceptions of “man” and seeks to address the question in the light of our shared humanity.
It advances the argument that a whole range of issues happening in Nigeria, as well as in
other countries – from debt bondage, human trafficking, early marriage, child labour,
corruption by the political class to ethnic stereotyping and the assigning of ethnic labels –
are inferiorising acts that inadvertently eviscerate the humanity of whole groups because
they are not “like us”. It is suggested that the school system should provide structured
opportunities for the learning of shared humanity – a humanity that implies that all human
beings have the same basic physical and psychological needs; and that our education should
seek to conscientiously break down barriers and stereotypes by providing students the
structured opportunities to step out of their social and ethnic enclaves, mix up, talk with each
other and share their respective stories.

Article 23

Mrs. Umemetu MOMOH (Ph.D) , & Mrs. Chioma Ebrasin AJARI (M.Phil)


The study investigated sanitary facilities maintenance and headteachers’ effectiveness in
public primary schools in Edo South Senatorial district. Two research questions and one
hypothesis were raised for the study. This study is a descriptive survey that adopted the
correlational research design. The target population of the study was comprised of 564
Headteachers in 564 public primary schools in Edo South Senatorial District. The sample
size of the study was 56 Headteachers representing 10% of the population. Three
teachers per school were purposively selected to rate the Headteachers’ effectiveness,
making a total of 168 teachers. A checklist and questionnaire were used to collect data
for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as
frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. The null hypothesis was tested
using the Pearson Product Moment Coefficient statistics at alpha level of 0.05. The
findings of this study revealed that the level of sanitary facilities maintenance and
headteachers’ effectiveness in Public Primary Schools in Edo South Senatorial District is
high and there is a significant relationship between sanitary facilities maintenance and
Headteachers effectiveness. It was therefore recommended that the State Universal
Basic Education Board (SUBEB) should monitor sanitary facilities in the school to ensure
that the high level of maintenance of the facilities is sustained, organise periodic seminars
for Headteachers on school sanitation and maintenance of sanitary facilities as well as
give priority to headteachers’ effectiveness in maintaining school facilities before

Article 24

Samuel Osaretin OLIKIABO, Ph.D & Daniel Osarenmwanta AIDEYAN, Ph.D


Open defecation has obvious negative consequences for public health and the
environment, as faecal contamination of the environment and poor general hygiene
practices are unquestionably a leading contributor to child morbidity, mortality,
undernutrition, and stunting, all of which can negatively impact cognitive development.
Sanitation issues are also a barrier to education and economic prospects, with women
and girls bearing the brunt of the repercussions. Nigeria is one of the countries in the
world with the biggest number of people who practice open defecation, which is believed
to be around 47 million people (24 percent). This has a detrimental influence on the
general population, particularly children, in terms of health and education, and has
undoubtedly contributed to Nigeria’s failure to reach the Millennium Development Goals.
The National Council on Water Resources was formed as a result of this. To enhance
environmental sanitation and put a stop to open defecation, the “Clean Nigeria-Use the
Toilet” campaign was launched by the National Council on Water Resources

Article 25

Bassey, Archibong Bassey & Felicia Mormah (Ph.D)


The study investigates the library users’ characteristics in developing economies. A
descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and two
hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A simple random sampling technique
was used to sample the population, which stood at 5,153 respondents. Data collected
from the researchers’ developed instrument Users’ Utilization Skills Library Questionnaire
(UUSLQ) was tested for reliability using Cronbach Coefficient Alpha formula, which
yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.66. Weighted mean scores were used for answering
research questions, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient independent
t-test and Analysis of variance were used for testing the research hypotheses. The results
indicate a significant influence of socio-economic and occupational background on the
utilization of public library services in the area under study. It was recommended among
others that the government should invest in setting up more libraries in the urban as well
as in the rural areas of the State and also embark on regular public enlightenment
programs on the uses and the applications of library services.

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